About 20-50% of industrial processes input energy is lost as waste heat. The thermal hydraulic engine relies on the thermodynamic properties of supercritical CO2 to efficiently perform work. The research aims to investigate the amount of input energy that is utilized in a complete cycle of the engine to lift weights. Thus, the actual efficiency can be determined through experimental data and compared to the Carnot (theoretical maximum) efficiency. The thermodynamic cycle can be viewed on either a T-s (temperature-entropy) or p-v (pressure-volume) diagram. This will improve the efficient use of industrial waste heat and future work will look to optimize the thermodynamic cycle of the engine.
Pellets have higher density and greater hardness than other types of biomass which enable easier transportation and storage. This research aims to investigate the amount of energy released and ash determination after combustion. Pellets from different types of crop residue will be experimented on using an oxygen bomb calorimeter and an ignition unit. The heating values of the various biomass pellets will then be compared with those of standard fossil fuels to establish their feasibility. Ash deposits on heating surfaces of boilers can also be described from results. Future work could be improving the design of pellet stoves for different types of biomass pellets based on their properties.